Carbon Fiber: From Woodwork to Masonry

Menokin carbon fiber tape and glass extensions to existing timbers extending to repaired stone and stone/glass walls

This is part of larger series on carbon fiber (CF). If you are just joining this blog now, please take a moment to review the previous carbon fiber repair posts.   In initial attempts to determine which CF cloths and resins to use, we reviewed loads of technical literature. Too often though it was focused… Continue reading Carbon Fiber: From Woodwork to Masonry

Carbon Fiber Repair for Historic Buildings, Woodwork, Part 2

Carbon fiber mittens-on-a-string will counteract shear at the tenon ends of the Menokin timbers

Methods for carrying the load of deteriorated joist ends using carbon fiber "mittens", information about the carrying capacity increase with each ply of carbon fiber tape on a timber, and a means of extending timbers with grafted elements like glass after casting an acrylic tooth cap to fit the damaged end of a timber, all designed with the wide-ranging timber damage at the Menokin Ruin in mind, but applicable to many buildings for in-place supplemental strengthening.

Carbon Fiber Repair for Historic Buildings, Woodwork Part 1

Layup and creation of a custom-formed carbon fiber core to replace the rotted center of a beam with crucial and visible tooling, Menokin 2008. John Greenwalt Lee

An overview of carbon fiber uses for strengthening individual timbers or floor systems. Epoxy tape can be used to support weakened timbers, but with vacuum-forming carbon fiber cloth can be form-fit to the core of hollow timbers as well.

Carbon Fiber Repair for Historic Buildings, Intro

Stabilization with carbon fiber is a very cost-effective and preservation-oriented option for deteriorated building elements.

Matching mortars by recognizing the fractal nature of geology

the fractal nature of stone to sand

Mortar matching is often seen as difficult to do, but once you understand that historic mortars primarily came from local sources, one need only look to the local geology including at roadside cuts to recognize the aggregates of a sand in their former condition. This is the wonder of the fractal nature of stone reduced to sand. And often the sand you seek is right beneath your feet!

Mortar ratios: How to measure void space in sand

The basic idea behind determining the void space in a sand is to determine the ratio of lime needed to adequately bind the sand without pushing the sand grains apart. In other words, how to make the strongest possible mortar by optimizing the lime portion.

The strength of mortar: an introduction to lime mortar

The lime cycle from limestone to hydroxide (lime putty) and back to stone

Covering the differences between hydraulic limes or cement and lime putty, this is a summary of the importance of pre-mixed mortar, proper hydration before and after installation, and compaction of lime putty-and-sand mortars.